Category: Computer Science

Top Universities to Study Computer Science

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Computer science includes brief study of computers and its functions. Computers are the essential parts of everyone’s life in today’s era whether it’s in corporate industries, IT sectors, business, accounting, digital or entertainment industry, news or publishing media, schools, colleges or any private and government offices. Everything is digital nowadays. From saving a small text message to saving large legal or financial documents everybody needs computers. As we all know computers are mainly constructed of two main parts that are its hardware and software systems. In computer science students mostly study about its software system and its functions. Students of computer engineering study about its hardware system but in computer science they gain knowledge about its internal designs, working theories and applications development.

Benefits of Learning Computer Science:

In its study one would learn about computers and its programming languages, study its networking system, digital graphics, and database systems. ‘‘What is program making and computing theory”? It includes all. There is much other information in the field of computer science as it includes a large syllabus to study about. A large number of students around the world these days are enrolling for study of computer science. As in its study one can learn about artificial intelligence and numerical analysis too, so it is getting more knowledgeable and interesting for the learners. Besides all this information it also includes detailed study about vision and graphics, bioinformatics and human computer interaction. So computer science is a subject of computer systems, software engineering, its security and functions with vast theory of computing and database systems.

There are many scopes and fields opened for a computer science graduate.Many reputed multinational companies invite them to work with. Apart from this they can work in government sectors too by applying for the exams in related fields. Students also have scope in research agencies and science and technology departments if they want to do more and detailed study about that. As software designers are in high demand in every field today so many national and international companies hire them at very good packages. Study of graphics and software vision may lead you to reach top positions in technology and software industries. Government also wants software expertise in many reputed work fields like law and order agencies for detailed research about cyber crime and hacking control. Army, navy and air force also take exams to hire software programmers and engineers who should be excellent in their field. They are also in demand in space missions as programming scientists and aerospace researchers. So being a computer science graduate can lead you the way of many possible ways of financially independent as well as get a reputed identity in your field of work.

Universities for Computer Science study:

As students across the world of so many different countries come to enroll and study computer science so there are many universities which provide the best faculty, books and knowledge for the students across the world. Some universities take pre exams for enrolling for graduation in these universities. Universities like Stanford, Oxford have the best computer laboratories, trusted staff, excellent software technologies and syllabus to provide knowledge to learners. Apart from these, the University of Massachusetts and ETH Zurich also have brilliant computer science departments which include numerical algorithms and software intelligence studies. Some of these top universities also have collaboration with many reputed technology and IT companies like Google, IBM, Microsoft etc, which provide direct placements and interview calls for the graduates and undergraduates too. These institutions give advanced knowledge for research and practicals. They also teach video games designing, robotics design and quantum computing to the learners. They also provide courses in computational biology and software verification that give additional knowledge to them. University of Cambridge is also one of the best universities in the world of computer science training. This also gives opportunities to do PhD and MPhil courses to the graduated students in the relative subject that helps students to do research in many other fields and industries they want. These universities help students to be trained in the artificial intelligence, software programs building, their functions, construction, programming languages and their processes which give students a vast and expanded field to explore their careers.

What Makes Up a Complete Computer System?

An entire computer system can receive user input, process it, and carry out the required functions, and display the output. It should efficiently store the input or the output and should carry out all these steps in minimal time. A computer can be thought of as a combination of its hardware and software. These two work together to transform data into information.

A computer system is a set of hardware as well as software components that together make the computer function. Major hardware devices include a keyboard, monitor, mouse, and chips, among other optional as well as necessary components. The software includes basic applications and kernel as well as shell scripts, which make the computer understand the inputs and carry out the required functionalities.

These days, computers are being used for all types of applications ranging from complex calculations to leisure games, among others. Any task that can be carried out systematically, it can also be carried out by a computer. In a nutshell, the functional components of a computer can be summarized as below:

  • Input Unit

The input unit of the computer system is responsible for accepting the data. For this, it uses standard input devices, like the ones mentioned above, namely, mouse, keyboard, scanner, bar code reader, and such.

  • Output Unit

This unit is responsible for displaying the data to the user. This data, or information, is the processed data displayed in a human-readable format. The output unit performs these functions. Standard output devices (hardware) include monitor or screen, speaker, printer, and such.

  • Processing Unit
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This unit is responsible for carrying out the given instructions on the provided data. These unit’s functions are performed by the Central Processing Unit (CPU). CPU further has the following components:

  • Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU): This unit performs all the arithmetic calculations or logical instructions. Arithmetic calculations include +, – , * , / , among others, while logical instructions include < , > , = , etc.
  • Control Unit (CU): This unit controls the execution of the instructions. It times their implementation according to their priority and makes the ALU and other groups carry them out.
  • Primary Memory: The CPU needs storage space to store the data while the instructions are being carried out. This storage space is called primary memory. It is a collection of registers.

Storage Unit

This is the permanent storage space that stores any kind of data. There are various types of storage devices, such as hard disks, CDs, pen drives, and DVDs, among others.

Computers come in various types, including embedded computers, personal computers such as laptops, desktops, and smartphones, among others, programmable computers, workstations, mainframes, and supercomputers. Each has its unique functionalities and importance. In today’s digital age, there is a rapid adoption in these computer systems. Besides, owing to the proliferation of the internet, one cannot do without a computer anymore. Computers provide speed, reliability, high storage capacity, accuracy, and versatility. While all of these characteristics are very important, computers fundamentally lack decision-making power and have zero IQ. Thus, without a human operating it, a computer cannot do much. However, AI and machine learning has come a long way and many operations are optimized. Of course businesses have rushed to utilize these to slim down there operations. Adult sites like fuckbook and other hookup apps have been at the forefront of utilizing this tech to maximize profits.

What is AI Supercomputer TX-GAIA at MIT Lincoln Lab?

AI Supercomputer TX-GAIA

Think of the internet as a network that connects people through the web pages or chats. Presently, over 5 billion people will be connected to the internet and 2020 the numbers are expected to reach 25 billion with the global annual traffic expected to exceed the equivalent of 500 billion DVDs. Only powerful super computers are able to support massive rapid computations can cope with the ever-increasing amount of data.

So as to power the AI applications and research across science, engineering and medicine the Massachusetts institute of Technology (MIT) Lincoln laboratory supercomputing center has installed a new GPU-accelerated supercomputer that is powered by 896 NVIDIA Tensor Core V100 GPUs. It is ranked as the most powerful super computer in the world.

The introduction of Artificial Intelligence into the work place has brought diversity. The new super computer has a peak performance of 100 AI peta FLOPs as measured by the computing speed which is required to perform mixed precision floating point operations commonly known as deep neural networks.

The system features a measured performance of around 5 petaFLOPs and is based on the HPE Apollo 2000 system which is specifically designed for the HPC and optimized AI. Deep neural networks continue to grow in size and complexity with time.

The new TX-GAIA computing system at the Lincoln laboratory has been ranked as one of the most powerful artificial intelligence supercomputers in any university. The system which was built by Hewlett Packard Enterprise combines traditional high-performance computing hardware with almost 900 intel processors and hardware that is optimized for AI applications in addition to the use of Nvidia graphics processing applications.

Machine-learning supercomputer

The new TX-GAIA supercomputer is housed within the EcoPOD modular data center and was first revealed to the world in 2011. The system joins other machines in the same location including the TX-E1 which supports collaboration with MIT campus and other institutions. Researchers at the institution are thrilled to have the opportunity to achieve incredible scientific and engineering breakthroughs.

Top 500 ranking

Top 500 ranking is based on LINPACK Benchmark which is basically a measure of a system’s floating-point computing power or how fast a computer solves a dense system of linear equations. The TX-GAIA’s performance is 3.9 quadrillion floating-point operations per second. Or rather petaflops. It has a peak performance of 100 petaflops which makes top any other in any university in the world. A flop is basically a measure of how fast a computer can perform deep neutral network (DNN) operations. DNNs basically refer to a class of algorithms that learn to recognize patterns in huge amounts of data.

Artificial intelligence basically has given rise to various types of miracles in the world which include speech recognition and computer vision. It is this kind of technology that allows Amazon’s Alexa to understand the questions and self-driving cars to recognize objects in their surroundings. As the complexity of the DNNs grow so is the time it takes for them to process massive amounts of datasets. Nvidia GPU accelerators that are installed in TX-GAIA’s are specifically designed for performing these DNN operations quickly.

Location

TX-GIAA is housed in a modular data center called an EcoPOD at the LLSC’s green, hydroelectrically powered site in Holyoke Massachusetts. It joins the ranks of some of the most powerful systems at the LLSC such as the TX-E1 which supports a collaboration with MIT campus and other users.

TX-GAIA will be tapped for training machine learning algorithms which include those that use DNNs. This implies that it will more likely crunch through terabytes of data for instance hundreds of thousands of images or years’ worth of speech. The systems computation power will be able to expedite simulations and data analysis and these capabilities will be able to support projects across R&D areas. This include improving weather forecasting, building autonomous system, accelerating medical analysis, designing synthetic DNA as well as in the development of new materials and devices.

Why supercomputing?

High-performance computing plays a very important role in promoting the scientific discovery and addressing of grand challenges as well as in the promotion of social and economic development. Over the past few decades, several developed countries have invested heavily into a series of key projects and development programs. The development of supercomputing systems has advanced parallel applications in various fields along with related software and technology.

Significance of super computing

A super computer is a high-performance computing which does not necessarily refer to a very large or powerful computer. A super computer comprises thousands of processors working together in parallel and it responds to the ever increasing need to process zillions of data in real time with quality and accuracy. HPC allows people to design and simulate effects of new drugs, provide faster diagnosis, better treatments and control epidemics as well as support in the decision-making process in areas such as water distribution, urban planning and electricity.

A supercomputer is of great benefit in a competitive industry as it helps in the digitization process. It also helps to direct benefits to our health in that super computers are able to detect genetic changes and it also comes in handy during weather forecasting.

The next wave of AI

The adoption of artificial intelligence has exploded in the last few years with virtually every kind of enterprise being on the rush to integrate and deploy AI methodologies in their core business practice. The first wave of artificial intelligence was characterized by small scale proof of concepts and deep learning implementations. In the next wave we will be able to see large scale deployments which are more evolved and concerted effort to apply to AI techniques in production to solve real world problems and drive business decisions.

Artificial Intelligence basically is a supercomputing problem and is expected to double in size within the next few years. AI thrives on massive data sets and there is a great convergence that occurs between AI and simulation. Most of the organizations that are performing simulation are increasingly adding machine and deep learning into their simulation.